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    《狼圖騰》: 精彩題材構思,小說功力待進

    來源: 作者:佚名 發布時間:2015-02-16

    《狼圖騰》小說在線閱讀    姜戎作品集

      千年的典章并沒有為曾在中國歷史上顯赫一時的蒙古留下很多記載。“天蒼蒼,野茫茫,風吹草低見牛羊。”語文書上這廖廖幾筆便是遙遠的蒙古在我們心中的印象了。近代知青運動開始,漢人才著實地踏足到這片大草原上。姜戎十多年的親身體驗凝成的文字把真實具體的蒙古帶到了讀者眼前,同時也在現代文學中開辟出一新塊領地,讓蒙古民族的精神傳播在中華大地。驚心動魄的生存斗爭故事,全方位的草原生態調查報告,《狼圖騰》一書沒有白看!它讓讀者知道,大草原的主人原來不是牛羊不是牧人,而是狼。從狼的身上,我們試圖尋找幾千年來支持著中華民族的精神源泉。

      大草原就是沙質地層上薄薄的一層泥土,和一年一青黃的牧草。鼠兔牛羊馬狗人狼廝殺搏斗,揚毛濺血,只為了爭奪一點生存空間和活命的食糧。不求食能裹腹,只為能生存繁衍。狼群馳騁縱橫,兇猛又通曉策略,草原之王當之無愧。游牧民族世代在狼的地盤里謀生,人與狼在長期戰斗中共存,這強化了游牧民族的生存競爭意識;狼身上傳載著亙古積累的戰略戰術,是歷代草原戰將的活兵書,因此草原民族強悍善戰。而生長在中原上的漢人,世代農耕土里刨食,有富饒土地,無天敵競爭,因而性情如羊,溫馴軟弱。漢人怕狼,喜好狗。狗馴服、忠心,也很好地符合漢人的階級模式。作者明確支持狼性民族,贊賞有嘉。筆名中也可見一斑:“姜姓是西戎羌族的一支,自西方游牧先入中部”,同時“戎”也是兵器,戰爭。書中以民族性格為著眼點,縱觀由夏商周起始直到清朝中華大地上各國各朝的興衰起落,引經據典論證民族氣質強悍或懦弱在國家生存競爭中的決定性影響。最后一章《關于狼圖騰的講座與對話》是議論文形式,其與小說的關系上,之前的小說正文可以看作是為這個論述預備的鋪墊。既然大部分讀者對狼和蒙古民族的認識尚淺,那就先講故事,灌輸知識,準備情緒,讓讀者對狼和羊的認識從簡單的“兇猛”與“溫馴”的對比經過幾十萬字的教育之后得以躍升到一個全面多角度的水平,對狼性產生了深刻的體會,這樣才可能使讀者在最后的核心論述中產生共鳴。不過由狼性和羊性這兩個極點構成的單一坐標軸,雖可以作為評價民族氣質的一個方面,而作為對整個中華民族氣質的概括則不夠充分。若試圖論述歷史大局的演變成因,民族氣質還須與生產力、敵國勢力、文明程度、君主政制等因素一并討論,才可避免片面或偏激。

      盡管是否“社會的穩定取決于狼性與羊性的平衡”有待商榷,而“大自然的穩定依賴于生態平衡”卻無從置疑。書中的第二大主題“草原生態論”以“保護草原”為綱,為狼群主持公道。狼是上天派遣下來的草原衛士,負責控制黃羊、老鼠、旱獺這些無節制繁殖向草原施壓的品種。狼也協助牧畜的優種選拔工作。可是進駐草原外來人口不懂得草原的內涵,因為狼刁羊偷馬,便動用槍炮企圖滅種。而當狼沒有了,大小生靈賴以生存的草原必將陷入無可挽救的混亂,覆巢之下豈有完卵?牧人的牛羊馬也就無從可談了。還有來自關內的廢牧從耕、生產建設兵團的定點圈養等等“新思路”更是“外族”對大草原的無情踐踏。無奈草原純樸的主人們對這一片浩浩蕩蕩的大進軍只得嘆息而無法抗拒。就這個問題展開的人物對話、小故事插曲,反反復復不下數十次,可見作者向社會呼吁情之切切。遺憾的是在作品發表之時,二十一世紀初,作者筆下的內蒙草原早已根本地不復存在,回天乏術了。這堂生態教育大課只當放了一響悶炮。

      生態學作為一條主線放在小說中,當然得比教科書式的敘述更有汁有味了。科學原理在《狼圖騰》中與民間信仰交織并行,自然和人文一唱一和,甚是特色。族長畢格利老人是傳統草原民族的文化中心,維持著一套以上天“騰格里”和狼為核心對草原萬物運作的解說。草原是萬物的根本,所謂的“大命”,上天對草原有本能的愛惜,派狼維護,狼便插足到草原上各種“小命”生息的各個環節當中,一切皆順從天意的協調。而知青陳陣作為新一輩漢族新文化的代表,又以科學原理的言詞來對天命作了重新闡述。作者有心作此比照,讓其互相印證,呈現異曲同工的姿態。草原民族信奉“騰格里”,天是上帝;而在現代科學理論的一邊,天就是大自然;都是世界的基礎,掌握著萬物的秩序。在某一個角度上,它們是否同出一源呢?民間信仰源于與自然長期相處的經驗,既源于自然,便不與科學相悖,這使得在現代科學長足發展之前,人們的行為早已經受到指導,因循自然法則。

      一部好的小說必須是內容和匠工的結合。內容方面,作者的內蒙草原生活經歷為小說提供了當代中國文壇上獨一無二的題材。更重要的是這部作品不是簡單地為描繪生活經歷而誕生,而是一部把立論放在“民族節氣”的高度上,再揉合歷史觀進行論證的大論文。如此構思就更是一座奇峰。透過此書可見作者在歷史、古籍方面的功底。可是要寫好一部小說,作者除了在主題方面有奇知或奇才之外,還得恰恰是個擺弄文字搭砌故事的熟工才好,這卻不易得。如果說長篇小說大致上是若干個中短篇小故事的組合,那么這些小故事的選取和構造就十分重要了。每個故事須各有特色,所表現的觀點及角度不可雷同。而又因為所有這些故事都必須在某個高層面上圍繞著同一條主線,從而保證作品的整體性,不能太過于獨立,于是這個建筑就很考匠心。書中前半部分不乏精彩故事,譬如狼追死馬群的一段,扣人心弦,將狼性的兇殘、狡猾、頑強、和鍥而不舍寫到了極至。而后半部分中,為論理以設的情節失去了故事的意義。就《狼圖騰》所包含的內容,即使去除虛構的人物和情節,仍然可以是一篇豐富的社科類作品;而要成為一部出色的小說,恐怕就得對結構作一番重整了。將松散細碎的筆墨集中一下,徹底去除重復的元素,再重新凝聚成觀察角度及表現重心都不同的一組故事,譬如說讓狼、馬、羊、人、天鵝、草原輪流做主,各寫一章,表現狼性、民族氣質、生態、信仰,每項都深入到位而不嘮叨冗言,把40萬字濃縮成25萬字左右,彈無虛發,那就精致很多了。

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