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    評《狼圖騰》: 樸素民族與又一次河殤

    來源: 作者:浮生 發布時間:2015-02-16

    《狼圖騰》小說在線閱讀    姜戎作品集

      整本《狼圖騰》,在我看來是宮崎市定《樸素民族》和八十年代《河殤》的結合。在宮崎市定的《東洋樸素主義的民族和文明主義的社會》表達了相似的觀點,但宮崎確是學術牛人,論述本身相當扎實,他認為,中國這個“文明主義的社會”,每逢發展到飽和點時,就會趨于頹廢,此時,只有具有“樸素主義”的野蠻的游牧民族侵入并建立了他們的統治,才能使它重新振作起來。而《河殤》更不必說,在中華文明衰落論的敘述中,經年流淌的泥沙里再也不能演化出新的文明因子,中華文明的出路就是藍色的文明——由黃色向藍色的轉變,亦即,若如福山所說,歷史有終結,也定終結于藍色文明。

      但《狼》一書甚至連這些論證也無,對游牧文化(姑且稱之為綠色文明)不吝贊美之詞的同時,通篇是對黃色農耕文化的徹底否定。

      這樣的語句比比皆是:

      “陳陣摸了摸狼崽的頭繼續說:性格不僅決定個人的命運,性格也決定民族的命運。農耕民族家畜性過多,這種窩囊性格,決定了農耕民族的命運。”

      “到了牧區以后,我覺得農區來的人真可惡,難怪游牧民族要跟農耕民族打幾千年的仗。我要是生在古代,也會像王昭君那樣主動請求出塞的,哪怕當昭君的衛兵隨從我也干。一旦打起仗來,我就站在草原大命一邊,替天行道,替騰格里行道,替草原行道。”

       “您不知道,我們漢族人是多么恨狼,把最惡最毒的人叫作狼,說他們是狼心狗肺,把欺負女人的人叫做大色狼,說最貪心的人是狼子野心,把美帝國主義叫做野心狼,大人嚇唬孩子,就說是狼來了……”

      這還是出自漢族知青之口。在我看來,整本小說散發的恰不是狼性,正是諂媚的“畜性”(這個詞正是作者在文中形容民耕文化所用的)。對非少數民族(除個別全力全意溶入其中的知青外),全是妖魔化的嘴臉。意識形態太過明顯。軍代表包包順貴更是以丑角出現,當時冒進定是有,不懂綠色邏輯也自然會有,但一定不會只如文中所述,或許是悲劇,是正劇,但決不會全是丑劇。

      整個書中全是勞動無用論(有大段成文),戰爭及戰斗力至上,狼是完美無缺的,歷史由狼改寫,真理在握壓抑不住的大段議論,余秋雨式的抒情,一切好的都歸于草原狼的恩賜。而歷史上一切都歸于游牧民族,傳統農耕民族茍活也是因為吸取了游牧民族的戰斗精神。甚至古巴比倫、古印度、古埃及和傳統中國的文明都被宣判為完全落后。

      而在費孝通先生的書里,我看到的分明是另一種大自由:自足,無訟,安然。

      若這是八十年代尋根文學時作品,我還可以理解,從上個世紀初開始,在被西方船堅炮利打昏了頭腦以后,中國傳統的世界觀也開始潰敗,對幾千年的否定,從西方尋新聲,為了抵抗西方國族而努力組建自己的民族國家,往日的天下觀在組織力強大的西方國族忽然無所適從,重估成了全盤否定,而重建不得不成為模仿。而后,短暫的本國現代性道路又以文革告終,(它被宣判為毒瘤,從而從健康肌體上切除),八十年代起,重又開始現代主義,先鋒派,重又開始從外國“別求新聲”,一路狂飆突進,也開始對少數民族異族文化的尋找,試圖在漢文化之外,尋找中國的根。張承志、韓少功、阿城、李杭育,都在此時。

      如果狼圖騰是這時作品,我想我不會意外。但,不是。

      在書中,草原人和草原狼共是騰格里的守護者。書中所說到游牧民族的可持續發展,以及像狼族一樣的團結和英勇,在我看來是絕對值得思考也值得學習的。但書中對農耕文明不加分析地一概否認,在我看來,是奇怪的。

      從前漢民族說少數民族是“蠻夷”,而在《狼圖騰》中,直指農耕民族為“畜性”,這樣的二元結構,其實并沒有變。這是又一次河殤,不過歷史的終結處,如作者所指,是游牧民族的“綠色文明”。

      再回到宮崎市定的《樸素》一書,論證過程相當扎實,只可惜學術也并不是自足,背后也是為了政治目的服務。在論證完樸素精神給過度文明化的漢文化帶來的一次又沖擊和清醒之后,下面的論證是這樣的:但是,契丹、滿洲和蒙古等具有“樸素主義”的游牧民族在就治了中國以后,卻又都不免因“文明化”而趨于衰落,日本也是具有“樸素主義”的民族,但其樸素主義不同于契丹、滿洲和蒙古,因為日本民族的“樸素主義”具有“發展性,是掌握了科學的新的樸素主義;井且掌握了“調和文明生活和樸素主義”的關鍵,日本如果對中國的統治一旦建立,就決不會再蹈契丹、滿洲和蒙古等游牧民族在中國的復撤。于是,“建設東亞新秩序”這個“重任”自然應由日本來承擔,也是完全自然的、合理的。

      這個就很明顯了。

      《狼圖騰》當然不是,但回頭再看到諸如此類的語言:

      “到了牧區以后,我覺得農區來的人真可惡,難怪游牧民族要跟農耕民族打幾千年的仗。我要是生在古代,也會像王昭君那樣主動請求出塞的,哪怕當昭君的衛兵隨從我也干。一旦打起仗來,我就站在草原大命一邊,替天行道,替騰格里行道,替草原行道。”

      這樣的語調,我想不起合適的詞語形容,在我看來,這或許是真正的漢奸語調。

    上一篇:深水潭——看故事還是得看寫故事的人   下一篇:歷史大象的另一條腿《狼圖騰》
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