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    《狼圖騰》: 一部宣揚叢林法則的偽小說

    來源: 作者:哆啦C夢2.0 發布時間:2015-02-16

    《狼圖騰》小說在線閱讀    姜戎作品集

      在讀這本書的過程中,我心里一直有一種不適感。

      最先我以為是受不了作者在書中對國民性的批評。但說來也怪,要說批評國民性最深刻最尖銳的要屬魯迅先生,但讀魯迅的作品時,我只有魯迅先生想傳達的那種“哀其不幸,怒其不爭”的情緒,而從來沒有讀《狼圖騰》時的那種不適感。越讀到后面我才忽然發現,《狼圖騰》之所以讓我感到不適,是因為書中傳達出來的那種對叢林法則的狂熱信仰。

      在作者看來,成吉思汗和他的子孫們取得的成就是偉大的、值得稱頌的。按照作者的邏輯,之所以歐亞各國人民要遭到蒙古人的奴役和屠殺的原因,完全是咎由自取,被“弱小的、充滿家畜性和奴性的”農耕文化所腐蝕的緣故,蒙古人的到來是為了給農耕文明“輸入充滿野性力量的狼血”。從作者的這種描述中,我看不出有對遭到蒙古軍隊蹂躪的歐亞各國的同情,看不出有對死于蒙古馬刀之下的數千萬乃至上億亡魂的憐憫。作者對游牧民族的強悍野蠻的崇拜,和對農耕民族”孱弱、奴性“的鄙視,真是和希特勒宣揚雅利安人至上和仇視猶太人的理論有異曲同工之妙。你弱小,我強大,那我侵略你,奴役你,屠殺你就是替天行道,你被侵略、被奴役、被屠殺就是你自己活該,我服從的是優勝劣汰的規則,這個世界上沒有弱者生存的位置——這就是作者的邏輯。

      游牧民族為什么要侵略農耕民族?說到底就是因為游牧民族文明實在落后,由于生存環境的惡劣,除了牛羊和馬群,他們沒有別的財富。草原文明遠比農業文明脆弱,對農業文明穩定、安逸生活的向往才是游牧民族一次又一次入侵的根本動力,不然怎么解釋無論是東方還是西方的游牧民族一旦進入了農業文明的地區,往往都被農業文明給同化而不是同化農耕文明?農業的產生是人類進入文明時代的標志,是人類發展進程的一大進步,人類正是從這時開始,擁有了改造自然以適應自身生存的能力,這種能力是人類之所以區別于其他動物的最根本性因素。誠然,這種改造自然的能力使用不當,會造成自然環境的破壞,會威脅人類自身的生存,但你不能說就為了害怕可能對自然環境造成破壞就永遠學游牧民族那樣過著原始、艱苦的生活吧?更何況,我想游牧民族也不是從一開始就學會尊重草原,懂得維持生態平衡的吧?肯定也是犯過不少錯誤之后才懂得了這個道理的。所以,除了野蠻和強悍外,我真不知道游牧民族還有什么地方優于農耕民族的理由的——就歷史上游牧民族給人類文明帶來的巨大災難來說,野蠻和強悍是不是優點還值得商榷。

      書的最后,作者一直宣揚要我們做一個適應現代社會的“文明狼”,我覺得這種呼吁簡直是太可笑了,為什么我們要做的是狼這種畜生,而不是一個健全的人呢?看到人類無論取得了什么成就都要被作者扯上和狼的關系,我實在是不解。人類自強進取的精神為什么要和動物的野性來類比呢?作者居然把早期儒家宣揚的“天行健,君子當自強不息”和“富貴不能淫,貧賤不能移,威武不能屈”等生氣勃勃的精神說成是對華夏民族先祖”狼性“的繼承,難道這種積極向上的精神就不能是人類文明發展的成果嗎?

      人類的發展史正是人類自身人性和獸性、文明和野蠻的搏斗史,從這一點來說,本書作者和他推崇的游牧文明毫無疑問是站在獸性和野蠻這一邊的。

      PS:一下其他的槽點

      1、從藝術角度來說,狼這種動物我還是很欣賞的。不過,丑化狼的行為可不是中國和東方文明的專利,西方文明也一樣。西方的那些寓言、童話故事里的狼也多半不是好的形象。

      2、作者說獅子、老虎、大象、雄鷹都可以馴服,唯獨狼不可馴服,我就想弱弱地問一問,那么人類最忠實的朋友——也是作者有些鄙視的動物——狗是怎么來的呢?

      3、”漢人之所以恨狗殺狗吃狗,最根本的的一條是漢人是農業民族,不是游牧民族......只有落后貧窮的農業民族把不該吃的東西都吃完了,連狗肉的不放過......“我絞盡腦汁也想不出農業民族究竟比游牧民族落后、貧窮在哪里。除了這句話里面的邏輯硬傷外,我有理由懷疑,作者是個高級黑。

      4、“蒙古貴族妄圖把中原農田變為牧場的行為......真不能用野蠻來定性,因為這種“野蠻”中,卻包含著保護人類生存基礎的深刻文明......”是啊,成百上千萬的農民都被趕盡殺絕了,人類的生存基礎當然就被保護下來了。

      5、”古代漢人雖有孫子兵法,也只是紙上談兵,更何況狼子兵法才死孫子兵法的真正源頭......“孫子帶著吳軍攻破楚國都城的時候匈奴人還在草原上啃泥巴呢。

      6、書最后的那個什么講座,我且不說內容,就說那種兩個角色一唱一和的敘述模式,讓人感覺真是王婆在賣瓜。

      7、不要告訴我這只是一部小說,不要這么認真。這哪里是普通意義上的小說?這本書帶有濃烈的自傳色彩,書中人物的觀點正是作者本人的觀點。這就已經超出了小說的范疇了。再說了,比起那些看完此書就被作者徹底洗腦、成為一個堅定的叢林法則信仰者的讀者來說,我還是不那么認真的。

      再PS:

      我對此書唯一完全贊同的地方就是作者書中對草原生態環境惡化和游牧文化消亡的憂慮,兩三年前,內蒙古發生了點事,正是因為這個原因。經濟發展不能以破壞自然和犧牲文化為代價。這些年來,天朝在這上面犯了太多錯誤了。當然為了和諧,這個話題我就不展開了。

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